People have very different reactions to the time of day. Many are much more alert and "with it" at one time of day than at other times. Some are morning people, some
are evening people, and some are little different from one time to another. These different orientations enable time to be a meaningful nonverbal element in
communication. Effective communication often is determined by the time of day the communication occurs. Early people should try to schedule as much of their
important communication efforts early in the day. Evening people should try to schedule as much of their important communication later in the day or in the evening.
Alpha reliability estimates for this instrument should be expected to be above .85.
Directions: Below are a series of 16 statements concerning peoples' time orientations. Indicate the degree to which each of these statements apply to you by filling in the number of
your response in the blank before each item: (5) Strongly agree; (4) Agree; (3) Neutral of undecided; (2) Disagree; (1) Strongly disagree.
_______ 1. I really dislike getting up in the mornings.
_______ 2. I like taking afternoon classes.
_______ 3. I prefer morning classes.
_______ 4. I am at my worst in the mornings.
_______ 5. I really like getting up in the mornings.
_______ 6. I dislike taking afternoon classes.
_______ 7. I am very irritable in the morning.
_______ 8. I am very alert in the afternoons.
_______ 9. I am very irritable in the afternoons.
_______10. I am very alert in the mornings.
_______11. I rarely do well on tests in morning classes.
_______12. I usually do very well on tests in afternoon classes.
_______13. I usually do very well on tests in morning classes.
_______14. I rarely do well on tests in afternoon classes.
_______15. I like to do my studying late at night.
_______16. I like to do my studying early in the day.
Step 1: Add responses to the Bolded items.
Step 2: Add responses to the unbolded items.
Step 3: Complete the following formula: Time Orientation = 48 - Total of step 1 + Total of step 2
Scores should between 16 and 80.
Scores above 50 indicate an evening orientation. Scores below 40 indicate a morning orientation. Scores between 40 and 50 indicate a more flexible orientation.
Richmond, V. P., & McCroskey, J. C. (1995). Nonverbal behavior in interpersonal relations (3rd Ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.