This is the most up-to-date measure of nonverbal immediacy as a self-report. Alpha reliability estimates around .90 should be expected. This measure has more face validity than previous instruments because it has more and more diverse items. Its predictive validity also is excellent.
When using this instrument it is
important to recognize that the difference in these self-reports between
females and males is statistically significant and socially significant
(that is, substantial variance in the scores on this instrument can be
attributed to biological sex). Whether these differences are "real" (that
is, females may actually be more nonverbally immediate than males) or a
function of social desirability (that is, females think they should be
more immediate than males think they should be) or a function of actual
behavior has not yet been determined (as of September, 2003).
DIRECTIONS: The following statements
describe the ways some people behave while talking with or to others. Please
indicate in the space at the left of each item the degree to which you
believe the statement applies TO YOU. Please use the following 5-point
scale: 1 = Never; 2 = Rarely; 3 = Occasionally; 4 = Often; 5 = Very
_____ 1. I use my hands and arms to gesture while talking to people.
_____ 2. I touch others on the shoulder or arm while talking to them.
_____ 3. I use a monotone or dull voice while talking to people.
_____ 4. I look over or away from others while talking to them.
_____ 5. I move away from others when they touch me while we are talking.
_____ 6. I have a relaxed body position when I talk to people.
_____ 7. I frown while talking to people.
_____ 8. I avoid eye contact while talking to people.
_____ 9. I have a tense body position while talking to people.
_____10. I sit close or stand close to people while talking with them.
_____11. My voice is monotonous or dull when I talk to people.
_____12. I use a variety of vocal expressions when I talk to people.
_____13. I gesture when I talk to people.
_____14. I am animated when I talk to people.
_____15. I have a bland facial expression when I talk to people.
_____16. I move closer to people when I talk to them.
_____17. I look directly at people while talking to them.
_____18. I am stiff when I talk to people.
_____19. I have a lot of vocal variety when I talk to people.
_____20. I avoid gesturing while I am talking to people.
_____21. I lean toward people when I talk to them.
_____22. I maintain eye contact with people when I talk to them.
_____23. I try not to sit or stand close to people when I talk with them.
_____24. I lean away from people when I talk to them.
_____25. I smile when I talk to people.
I avoid touching people when I talk to them.
Step 1. Add the scores from the following items: 1, 2, 6, 10, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 19, 21, 22, and 25.
Step 2. Add the scores from the following items: 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11, 15, 18, 20, 23, 24, and 26.
Total Score = 78 pluse Step 1 minus Step 2.
Females Mean = 102.0 S.D. = 10.9 High = >112 Low = <92
Mean = 93.8
S.D. = 10.8 High = >104 Low <83
Source: Richmond, V. P., McCroskey,
J. C., & Johnson, A. D. (2003). Development of the Nonverbal Immediacy
Scale (NIS): Measures of self- and other-perceived nonverbal immediacy.
Communication Quarterly, 51, 502-515.