This is the most up-to-date measure of nonverbal immediacy as an other- or observer-report. Earlier measures have had problematic alpha reliability estimates. This instrument may be used for any target person (most earlier measures were designed only for observations of teachers). Alpha reliability estimates around .90 should be expected. This measure also has more face validity than previous instruments because it has more and more diverse items. Its predictive validity is also excellent.
When using this instrument it is important to recognize that the
difference in these observer-reports between females and males is not statistically
different. Hence, it is unnecessary to employ biological sex of the person
completing the instrument in data analyses involving this instrument. It
is recommended that the COMBINED norms be employed in interpreting the
results employing this instrument. However, sex differences of the target
persons on whom the instrument is completed may be meaningful. This possibility
has not been explored in the research to date (September, 2003).
DIRECTIONS: The following statements describe the ways some people behave while talking with or to others. Please indicate in the space at the left of each item the degree to which you believe the statement appliesto (fill in the target person's name or description). Please use the following 5-point scale:
1 = Never; 2 = Rarely; 3 = Occasionally; 4 = Often; 5 = Very Often
_____ 1. He/she uses her/his hands and arms to gesture while talking to people.
_____ 2. He/she touches others on the shoulder or arm while talking to them.
_____ 3. He/she uses a monotone or dull voice while talking to people.
_____ 4. He/she looks over or away from others while talking to them.
_____ 5. He/she moves away from others when they touch her/him while they are talking.
_____ 6. He/she has a relaxed body position when he/she talks to people.
_____ 7. He/she frowns while talking to people.
_____ 8. He/she avoids eye contact while talking to people.
_____ 9. He/she has a tense body position while talking to people.
_____10. He/she sits close or stands close to people while talking with them.
_____11. Her/his voice is monotonous or dull when he/she talks to people.
_____12. He/she uses a variety of vocal expressions when he/she talks to people.
_____13. He/she gestures when he/she talks to people.
_____14. He/she is animated when he/she talk to people.
_____15. He/she has a bland facial expression when he/she talks to people.
_____16. He/she moves closer to people when he/she talks to them.
_____17. He/she looks directly at people while talking to them.
_____18. He/she is stiff when he/she talks to people.
_____19. He/she has a lot of vocal variety when he/she talks to people.
_____20. He/she avoids gesturing while he/she is talking to people.
_____21. He/she leans toward people when he/she talks to them.
_____22. He/she maintains eye contact with people when he/she talks to them.
_____23. He/she tries not to sit or stand close to people when he/she talks with them.
_____24. He/she leans away from people when he/she talks to them.
_____25. He/she smiles when he/she talks to people.
_____26. He/she avoids
touching people when he/she talks to them.
Step 1. Add the scores from the following items: 1, 2, 6, 10, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 19, 21, 22, and 25.
Step 2. Add the scores from the following items: 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11, 15, 18, 20, 23, 24, and 26.
Score = 78 plus Step 1 minus Step 2.
Females Mean = 96.7 S.D. = 16.1 High = >112 Low = <81
Males Mean = 91.6 S.D. = 15.0 High = >106 Low = <77
Mean = 94.2 S.D. = 15.6
High = >109 Low = <79
Richmond, V. P., McCroskey, J. C., & Johnson, A. E. (2003). Development
of the Nonverbal Immediacy Scale (NIS): Measures of self- and other-perceived
nonverbal immediacy. Communication Quarterly, 51, 502-515.